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A dial indicator is used for checking the back-lash (the distancebetween the pinion and the ring gear). In this instance, it was too muchat .014-inch. We reduced the back-lash and rechecked the pattern onceagain. Still no good as the gears should mesh more to the center. Thecarrier needed to be removed to change the pinion depth with shims. Theoriginal shim checked out at .027-inch, so we went with one thatdisplaces .024-inch. That did the trick.